Migrating WordPress

After another WordPress migration [1], here’s my 2p on WordPress migrations: Don’t even think about following WordPress’s standard backup-and-restore instructions. The Duplicator plugin captures everything in one go, including comments, themes, etc as it dumps both the database and the file structure in a single archive. Also, you can easily scp the dump onto the new machine; whereas the usual procedure requires rebuilding WordPress, installing a plugin, and then worrying about the dump being too big when you try to upload it over HTTP (as there’s still no obvious way to scp and restore WXR files, really!)

Duplicator’s restore phase isn’t too clear from the docs, but I found the answer here. You don’t have to manually install WordPress. You simply create a new temp folder somewhere under web servers public/ folder, open your browser, and navigate to the install.php file there in this folder. It will do the rest for you!

  1. Now that Linode has dropped its minimum box to $10/month (and a decent spec at 1GB RAM with SSD storage), I decided to consolidate and move the utility box on Linode instead of DigitalOcean.

How to use different favicons for development, staging, and production

It’s useful to have different favicons for each environment during development, as Pamela recently pointed out. Here’s how I do it.

First, generate the images. Most graphics editor have some kind of Colorize tool and if you do it often, use ImageMagick to change colors programmatically. If you’re lucky enough to have a green brand logo, a cool combo would be traffic lights. Justsaying.

Now, set the favicons according to your environment. Should you just use /favicon.ico location or point to the location in head? The answer is both. /favicon.ico is useful for third-party plugins whose HTML you don’t control, as well as quick hack pages you can’t be bothered configuring with proper metadata. A link tag in html head is useful for revving the icon when it changes, to bust any cached version. So use both.

To set favicon in HEAD, ensure the path is dynamically generated instead of hard-coded:

  1. %link(rel="icon" href="#{favicon_path}" type="image/x-icon")

The path is generated like such as:

  1. def env_suffix
  2.   Rails.env.production? ? '' : "-#{Rails.env}"
  3. end
  5. def favicon_path
  6.   asset_path "favicon#{env_suffix}.ico"
  7. end

It’s arguably bad form to use “production” strings in production, so the env_suffix nonsense above will hide it. If you don’t care about that, just call your production icon favicon-production.ico and save yourself a little hassle.

As mentioned earlier, we also want just /favicon.ico to exist. A quick way to do that is copy it when the apps starts or define /favicon.ico as a route and serve the file as favicon_path, defined above, with sufficient cache expiry time (e.g. 1 day). e.g.:

  1. def favicon
  2. path = ActionController::Base.helpers.asset_path "favicon#{env_suffix}.ico"
  3. send_file path, type:"image/x-icon", disposition:"inline"
  4. end

For bonus points, you might want to use similar techniques to provide overriding stylesheets for development and staging. Then you can introduce a text label or change background color, etc.

Rails quirk: Adding to DateTime

Just came across a weird one with DateTime. Adding an int value will increment by a day, not a second as you may expect:

  1. $ x=1
  2. 1
  3. $ x.class
  4. Fixnum
  5. $ DateTime.new(2000, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0)+x
  6. Sun, 02 Jan 2000 00:00:00 +0000

But adding by a second is possible using explicitly 1.second. The strange thing is both inherit from FixNum and essentially act as the same number. So if you want it to mean seconds, one way to achieve it is use “x.seconds”.

  1. $ x=1.second
  2. 1 second
  3. $ x.class
  4. Fixnum
  5. $ DateTime.new(2000, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0)+x
  6. Sat, 01 Jan 2000 00:00:01 +0000

How HTTP client libraries should support redirects

I don’t think I’ve ever come across an HTTP library (and I’m including XMLHttpRequest here) that covers all bases on redirects. In the hope of pushing the field forward, here is my wishlist. I’m limiting this to just GETs as it gets even more complicated with the mutating actions. (Several browsers do XMLHttpRequest wrong in the case of POST redirects.)

  • Follow redirects by default (it’s the most typical need after all), but provide an option to turn that off.
  • Allow a limit on redirect-following recursion, to prevent too much redirecting [1].
  • Prevent infinite redirect cycles. Which arise due to misconfiguration or malicious denial-of-service efforts [1].
  • Report back the chain of redirection, with corresponding status codes (ie was it permanent?).

It’s really the last point that’s universally missing. For services like Player FM which need to retain a record of permanent redirects, it’s necessary. The lack of this features means having to write custom code to follows redirects. Which isn’t a giant burden, but it’s error-prone, a pain to test, and has to be done for every kind of resource.

  1. The recursion limit requirement has the side benefit of preventing infinite redirect cycles, so that alone may be adequate for a library. But it’s worth treating a separate requirement because: (a) it can be even more optimal if handled separately (ie it can terminate even before the limit is reached); (b) if the library does rely on some limit to prevent infinite recurison, the library should nevertheless enforce some maximum, e.g. 100, and also set some sane default, e.g. 5.

Photo Credit: Smabs Sputzer via Compfight cc

Key-based cache expiry: A developer’s primer

Key-based cache expiry is a powerful pattern for efficient and reliable caching. I’ve been using it on for some time now after reading DHH’s original post and it’s worked well. This post explains the more conventional approaches to explain how key-based caching arises as a fruitful alternative.

So then, how does caching normally work, and what’s so bad about that anyway?

Clear after some time. Sure, you can say “this stock price table expires in 5 minutes” and then re-render it every 5 minutes (or longer if no-one immediately requests it). The problem is, you’re often making a big compromise on both ends. On the one hand, you’ll end up with stale results when the stock price changes during this cache window, e.g. if it changes 2 minutes after you serve it, you’re sending wrong data for another 3 minutes. And on the other hand, what if it only changes once a day? Most of the time you’re needlessly re-retrieving data, re-calculating and re-rendering it. Wasteful.

Clear manually. Seeing the problems of time-based expiry, you could be tempted to just keep the cache up to date manually. So when you’re notified of a price change, you explicitly update the value in the cache. This will certainly be more efficient, but the logic gets pretty complex as you scale up. You end up with NxM code complexity as all N bits of code needs to be aware of which M cache items could be affected by changes.

So one technique is easy but inefficient and inaccurate; the other is efficient and accurate, but hard. Let’s see if we can find a sweet spot which is easy AND efficient AND accurate.

Don’t clear. With key-based cache expiry, everything’s put there forever and never cleared. How is that possible? Because it takes advantage of the cache’s built-in automatic expiry mechanism. We must use a cache, such as Memcached or Redis, which supports some kind of expiry based on least-recently-used (LRU) or similar selection. In that sense, we have reached our application’s sweet spot by offloading complexity to the cache framework.

How this works is the keys must reflect a version or timestamp of the object being cached, e.g. a key might be “article-123-201404070123401”, generalised as “type-id-timestamp”. Normally clients won’t request the object by version, so you’ll need to do a quick lookup to find the object’s latest version or timestamp [1]. Then you retrieve it from the cache, or write through to the cache if it’s not already present. And the important thing is you write to it with infinite expiry.

The technique can be used at many levels – HTTP caching, memcached, persistent databases. I first asked about it here and I’ve since used it effectively in production on Player FM’s website and API. It’s certainly how various frameworks handle asset serving (ie compiling CSS with a timestamp and so on), and it’s also an official part of Rails 4, and I expect other frameworks in the future. So it’s a pattern programmers should be familiar with in an era where performance is held in high esteem, and rightly so.

  1. Looking up timestamp or version is work you don’t have to do with manual expiry, so it’s again a trade-off that makes this slightly less efficient, but a lot easier. Furthermore, if you arrange things right, you can actually have clients request the latest version/timestamp for all but the original resource (when they are requesting several resources in succession).

Photo Credit: Paolo Margari via Compfight cc

Load-balancing Rails with Nginx

Well this was some fine undocumented black magic. I’ve got Player FM behind a load balancer now, using the following Nginx config. I’ll explain some more about the overall upgrade later.

# App load balancer

upstream playerhost {

server {

  server_name playerhost;

  location / {

    proxy_set_header Authorization "Basic blahblahblah==";
    proxy_next_upstream http_500 http_502 http_503 http_504 timeout error;

    # http://stackoverflow.com/questions/16159998/omniauth-nginx-unicorn-callback-to-wrong-host-url
    proxy_set_header Host $http_host;
    proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
    proxy_set_header Client-IP $remote_addr;
    proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $remote_addr;

    proxy_redirect http://playerhost http://player.fm;
    proxy_redirect https://playerhost https://player.fm;
    proxy_pass http://playerhost;



  • I recommend using a distinct name for the backend (I’ve used “playerhost”). Most tutorials use the non-descript “backend”, but it’s a useful indicator if something’s going wrong as you’ll see this ID pop up in URLs and HTML content.
  • You don’t have to use basic auth for the backends. You could just firewall them off the public internet or deal with them being public. Being public is not clean and will cause the site to be hit by search bots and so on unnecessarily. But closing it off altogether is not ideal, because it’s useful for diagnostics to go into the backend servers. So I expose them via basic auth. The “blahblahblah” is base64 of your basic auth username:password.
  • The site mostly worked without set_header, but I had some weird oAuth redirect problems and occasional HTML problems. In both cases, I’d be seeing that “playerhost” URL instead of the actual domain. This fixed it.
  • The proxy_redirect commands were an earlier attempt to fix https redirections, and worked, but still left the problem mentioned in the previous point. It may not be necessary at all, after adding the set_headers. I haven’t tested that yet.

Photo Credit: Graham Cook via Compfight cc

Why my Nexus is fantastic and why my next phone won’t be a Nexus

My Nexus 5 is great. It runs pure Android, it’s super-fast with Kitkat, screen is great, and it was great value as a SIM-only purchase. I can be confident it will always be running the latest Android too, which means not just more toys but improved security. And it’s almost a necessity as an Android app publisher to own a Nexus device, for testing purposes (pure Android is the starting point for all other devices/OSs to deviate from, so Nexus with stock Android is the least deviation from the sum total of all things Android).

So why will my next phone not be a Nexus?

One word: tethering. Many people claim they can make a day without charging their phone. I can too, with the right settings. But not if I want to tether. Tethering drains battery hard, not surprising that turning your phone into a modem/router would do that. Not that Nexus battery is bad at all, it’s probably about average for a high-end. But forget about lasting a day when tethering.

The thing is, you see these products like “Kindle+3G”, “iPad with data plan”, and think why bother. I have true-unlimited 4G for ~ £20/month (thanks Three) and a phone capable of sharing it with any device I damn please. As well as Kindle e-reader and tablets, I’m sometimes testing other phones and devices which either aren’t phones (e.g. iPod touch) or are cheapo PAYG phones without a data plan. Sometimes others need to grab a connection or I need to work on PC too. All of these things become full-fledged smartphones through the magic of tethering.

Similarly, if I go abroad and get a local SIM, that’s another time I really want to tether. I can bypass silly hotel internet altogether by getting a local SIM and sharing the connection.

Bottom line, I want to tether without having to worry my phone won’t last the morning. So a phone without replaceable battery doesn’t cut it. I seriously miss being able to carry a battery in my pocket and another in my bag, pretty much guaranteeing there will always be charge. Sure there are various portable ways to charge on the go, I know them well and use them all the time. It’s not the same as having portable batteries. AKA Sod’s law ensures you won’t have it when you need it.

I only wish the manufacturers would embrace it and provide front-loading slots instead of forcing me to rip off a fragile plastic lid every day. And support hot-swapping (which IIRC Nexus S did, but nothing since).

So my next phone is likely to be a Samsung or HTC, one with portable battery and plenty of charge. Or a Nexus if it does indeed support battery changing. But it seems the priority is understandably on keeping the product simple and as cheap as possible. That means a single battery for life.

Linode API – Reference Data

Reference data in Linode API (and things built on top of it like Ansible’s module) isn’t really documented anywhere, so I’m dumping some of it here using the Ruby Linode gem. I assume this stuff is the same for all users (theoretically some plans or data centres might vary, but I doubt it). Of course it will go out of date as Linode adds new options, so feel free to fork it and re-run using the setup code provided there.

Easiest to read the raw Gist here

Ansible and Linode: What I learned about controlling Linodes from Ansible

Background: Learning Ansible

I decided it’s time to bite the bullet and commit to a configuration management platform. Ansible keeps coming up as the present pinnacle. There were a few hurdles before I could get to the point of successfully rebooting a Linode, so figured I’ll save you the learning curve.

I’ve not used Puppet or Chef or Salt in production, so I’m not qualified to compare. I can only go by what others say, and apparently Ansible’s main strength stems from the fact it ships “with the kitchen sink” instead of forcing administrators to trawl through GitHub to find the appropriate third-party module, which might then be buggy or out of date. And also because it’s relatively simple, having a “push” model which simply uses ssh to update remote servers instead of running some agent on them to “pull” changes from the config server. It also supports deploying new apps (like Capistrano) as well as the main purpose of configuring servers.

If you’re learning Ansible, I recommend setting up a dedicated VPS to run Ansible and another couple of dummy VPSs to act as the remotes. You could do this cheaply with DigitalOcean for example. And then following the official tutorials.

Installing Linode-Python

The first thing to know is that Ansible ships with a vast array of built-in modules, but not their dependencies. So running an ansible Linode command (`ansible remote-host -m linode somearg=someval’), I got a dependency fail: “linode-python required for this module”.

Easy enough fix, right? Well, I went through various steps to install linode-python and verified it worked by opening the Python repl (ie typing python on the command-line) and entering “import linode”. Worked fine.

But same error with Ansible. “linode-python required for this module”. I thought my PYTHONPATH must be messed up or … who knows? Read on …

Prepare “localhost” host so you can run local actions

Looking more closely at the Linode module doc, I realised this is a local action. That is, it doesn’t actually run on a remote machine. Which makes sense, because we’re trying to run general Linode commands. So it’s like a global command, and Ansible’s way of dealing with that is to consider it runs on localhost.

So how do you run a local command on the command-line (since I was in experimental mode)?

First, Open up the inventories file (/etc/ansible/hosts) and enter a new group:


Second, make sure you can ssh to localhost. Which might need you to do this:

cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys

Anyway, just check ssh localhost actually works.

Figure out Linode IDs

At this point, I could use the Ansible Linode module, but I still had a problem changing Linode state. I found the library needed a Linode ID argument, which had to be numeric. This is painful as the Linode web console only shows you the string “nickname” and not its underlying ID.

So I tried to use the API to list IDs, and discovered the Linode Ruby library doesn’t actually show those IDs. But turns out, the Python Linode library does produce the IDs! I wrote a script to show the ID for each Linode:

UPDATE Feb 2014: Actually this isn’t necessary as Ansible’s dynamic inventory script can do it. Download and run this script to get your list of Linodes: https://github.com/ansible/ansible/blob/devel/library/cloud/linode. It’s probably a good idea to just clone that whole ansible project so you can easily access parts of it.

Bouncy Bounce! Restart the Linode …

Okay, finally I can run this. I found another little quirk is that the module requires a name argument, even though it should be able to work it out from the ID. (It seems to be a bug, as it should only need the name if it’s creating a new node, but what do I know.)

ansible localhost -m linode -a "linode_id=123456 name=funkyserv state=restarted wait=true api_key=$LINODE_API_KEY"

This now works and responds with a “restarted” status. I’ve verified with the Linode web console the node is actually rebooting.

Appendix: Bonus tips

I found it useful to refer to the source for the Ansible module. It was easy to find using locate linode, located at /usr/share/ansible/cloud/linode and easy enough to follow without having seen a module’s internals before.

I got a similar error with the mysql module (“linode-mySqlDb required for this module”). A bit confusing as this turned out to be a different cause. In this case, it really was a remote command, meaning the Python module (and Python itself) would have to be installed on the remote server (ie the mysql server).

Migrating user accounts from Google OpenID to Google OAuth to Google Plus


Over here, Ade has asked me to permalink a comment I made about moving Player FM accounts from Google Open ID to OAuth. The reason I did it was because Android sign-in is really based on OAuth, but what I didn’t know was Google at the time was preparing to launch “Sign in with Google Plus”, also based on OAuth. Bottom line: Google Open ID, afaict, is going the way of the dodo, so any services using it probably want to migrate their users to G+. (Googlers may please correct me if I’m wrong about Open ID’s demise.)

There were many permutations to be considered for this kind of migration, each with trade-offs to developer complexity and user experience. What follows was the optimum balance for me after a repetition of thought experiments, in between wishing I had a pony (ie that I’d opted for OAuth in the first place, the only reason I didn’t was availability of an Open ID Rails plugin). This is all web-based as we (thankfully) hadn’t launched on Android yet.

The problem

The first concern here is largely about user perceptions. To us developers, Google OAuth and Google Open ID are distinct login mechanisms, as similar to each other as they are to Facebook or Twitter. But to the user, they’re the same thing – Googles all the way down. So you can’t present the user with separate login buttons for Google OAuth and Google Open ID…you only get to present one Big G button.

The other concern is that sites who present “Existing users – log in here” versus “New users – sign up here” buttons … are doing it wrong. A major benefit of third-party sign-in is you can just present a “Connect with X” button and the user doesn’t have to care or remember if they previously connected with X or not. Don’t make me think!

Put concern A together with concern B and Houston, we have a problem. You present that one big G button with Google OAuth and what happens if the user is unrecognised? Is this a new user or someone who had previously logged in using Open ID. (It’s fine if the user is recognised, that means they’re one of the post-OAuth-era people.)

The solution

The solution depends if you’re willing to ask for email permissions on the new oAuth flow.

If you are willing to ask for email, that will make it easy to link the two accounts, because Open ID already relies on email, so you have their email. You can just switch right now to oAuth and once the user authenticates, link the account with the account having the same o8 ID. (Note: this scenario is purely speculative and not based on my experience.)

Since I chose not to ask for email, I had to do the uncool thing and temporarily divided Login from Signup.

In the Login area, the app prompted users for their email or login, and immediately made an XHR call to detect whether that account is using o8 or oAuth, then showed the corresponding button (the button is just a Google button, looks the same either way but the link will be different for o8 vs oAuth). (In addition, the Twitter and classic login form were shown.)

For people who logged in with Open ID, I built an !IMPORTANT! big red notification when the user logged in via Open ID, telling them we’ve updated Google login procedure, and when they click to set it up, taking them through the oAuth flow with a special callback for the migration. At this point, the server recognises the two accounts are linked (they’d already logged in with Open ID, now they’ve just logged in with OAuth), so we can save the user’s OAuth credentials. This user now has two third-party accounts – Google Open ID and Google OAuth. Just as they might also have a Facebook account and a Twitter account.

The Signup area of course only contained an OAuth button (as well as Twitter, which was exactly the same as Twitter in the login area, and classic signup form).

I published advance notice on the blog I would be shutting down the old Google IDs, kept the migration alive for two months, and then deleted all the Open ID accounts at that time. Anyone who didn’t log in at the time lost their accounts, but of course a few people mailed me about it (mainly when we launched the Android app and they tried to log in again), so I helped them migrate manually.

I did this for a couple months before deprecating o8 and returning to the nicer single Google button setup. And just manually merged the accounts when a few users asked me why the Google button is not getting them back to their old account.?


It was well worth the pain, as the vast majority of Android users now choose to log in with Google, even though we also support classic login and guest mode. The G+ API was a big bonus to come out of it. I’ve done some experiments on the social side and expect to do much more with G+ accounts in the future, to help people discover new shows to listen to.